The sole responsibility of a subject is to maintain a list of observers and to notify them of state changes by calling their update() operation. The responsibility of observers is to register (and unregister) themselves on a subject (to get notified of state changes) and to update their state (synchronize their state with subject's state) when they are notified. This makes subject and observers loosely coupled. Subject and observers have no explicit knowledge of each other. Observers can be added and removed independently at run-time. This notification-registration interaction is also known as publish-subscribe.